Ammonium perchlorate (AP) is produced by reaction between ammonia and perchloric acid. This process is the main outlet for the industrial production of perchloric acid. The salt also can be produced by salt metathesis reaction of ammonium salts with sodium perchlorate. This process exploits the relatively low solubility of NH4ClO4, which is about 10% of that for sodium perchlorate. AP crystallises as colorless rhombohedra.
IDENTIFICATION AND USE: Ammonium perchlorate is a colorless, crystalline compound. The most common uses for ammonium perchlorate are in explosives and rocket propellants, which have been widely used in military munitions items, such as mortars, grenades and flares and solid fuel rocket.
More information about Classification and Labelling is available in the Regulations section of ECHA website. More help available here. Harmonised classification and labelling (CLH) Harmonised classification and labelling is a legally binding classification and labelling for a substance, agreed at European Community level.
Since there are differences in the classification by different Federal and State jurisdictions, the question of proper classification for the purpose of safe handling, storage and transportation in the workplace is at issue. CHARACTERISTICS OF AP: Ammonium perchlorate (NH 4 CLO 4) is a white crystalline substance. It is a powerful oxidizing
AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE is a strong oxidizing agent. Decomposes at 130°C and explodes at 380°C [Mellor 2 Supp. 1:608 1956]. Explosions have occurred in propellant formulations containing ammonium perchlorate to which ferrocene has been added as a burning rate catalyst.
Proper Shipping Name AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE Hazard Class 5.1 Packing Group II All of the components in the product are on the following Inventory lists: X = listed International Inventories Component TSCA DSL ELINCSNDSL EINECS NLP PICCS ENCS AICS IECSC KECL Ammonium Perchlorate X X 232 -235 1 X X X X X U.S. Federal Regulations
combustible material. There is a risk of explosion if heated under confinement. Specific classification for Ammonium Perchlorate manufactured by American Pacific concerning physical hazards, American Pacific has demonstrated that Ammonium Perchlorate qualities with a median granulometry higher or equal to 70 µm do not present an explosive
* Ammonium Perchlorate may affect the kidneys. * Ammonium Perchlorate is a HIGHLY REACTIVE stone and a DANGEROUS EXPLOSION HAZARD. IDENTIFICATION Ammonium Perchlorate is an odorless, white, sand-like powder. It is used in analytical chemistry and as an etching and engraving agent. It is also used as an animal fattening agent and in explosives.
Tetraethylammonium perchlorate, 0.2M aqueous solution Revision Date 23-Jan-2018 Autoignition Temperature No information available Explosion Limits Upper No data available Lower No data available Oxidizing Properties Oxidizer Sensitivity to Mechanical ImpactNo information available Sensitivity to Static DischargeNo information available Specific Hazards Arising from the Chemical
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Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant (APCP) is a modern fuel used in solid-propellant rocket vehicles. It differs from many traditional solid rocket propellants such as black powder or zinc-sulfur, not only in stone composition and overall performance, but also by the nature of how it is processed.
(1) Ammonium perchlorate (particle size greater than 15 microns) (2) Ammonium permanganate (3) Guanidine nitrate (4) Hydrogen peroxide solutions (greater than 91 percent) (5) Tetranitromethane Ammonium perchlorate less than 15 microns is classified as an explosive and, as such, is not covered by this code. (SeeNFPA 495, Explosive Materials Code.)
Feb 23, 2018· Ammonium perchlorate, an excellent oxidizer and potentially unstable compound, is marginally soluble in water, producing the ions. Calcium hydroxide is a strong base, meaning that what little Ca(OH)2 dissolves in water ionizes completely. Ca(OH)2 is even less soluble in water. Are you OK with dealing with aqueous equilibria?
Classifying stone Reactions. Learning Objectives. By the end of this section, you will be able to: Define three common types of stone reactions (precipitation, acid-base, and oxidation-reduction) Classify stone reactions as one of these three types given appropriate descriptions or stone equations; and Cs +) and ammonium ion NH 4 +
2.1 Classification of the substance or mixture Classification according to Regulation (EC) N o 1272/2008 Oxidizing liquids (Category 3), H272 Eye irritation (Category 2), H 319 Specific target organ toxicity repeated exposure (C ategory 2), H373 For the full text of the H-Statements mentioned in this Section, see Section 16. 2.2 Label elements
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The ammonium perchlorate makes up the oxygen deficit introduced by using nitrocellulose, improving the overall specific impulse. The aluminum also improves specific impulse as well as combustion stability. High performing propellants such as NEPE-75 used in Trident II D-5 replace most of the AP with HMX, further increasing specific impulse.
In the process, a recovered ammonium perchlorate solution is contacted with activated carbon, preferably by passage through a packed column. Contamination that modifies the ammonium perchlorate crystal habit and causes rhombic-shaped ammonium perchlorate particles is removed by activated carbon.
Mar 03, 2011· Perchlorates are colorless salts that have no odor. There are five perchlorate salts that are manufactured in large amounts: magnesium perchlorate, potassium perchlorate, ammonium perchlorate, sodium perchlorate, and lithium perchlorate. Perchlorate salts are solids that dissolve easily in water. The health effects of perchlorate salts are due to the perchlorate itself and not to the
US3383180A US448697A US44869765A US3383180A US 3383180 A US3383180 A US 3383180A US 448697 A US448697 A US 448697A US 44869765 A US44869765 A US 44869765A US 3383180 A US3383180 A US 3383180A Authority US United States Prior art keywords ammonium perchlorate crystals crystallizer crystallization zone Prior art date 1965-04-16 Legal status (The legal status is an
1.1.1 This code shall apply to the storage and handling of oxidizers that are liquid or solid at ambient conditions. 126.96.36.199 This code shall not apply to the storage of solid and liquid oxidizers for normal use on the premises of one- and two-family dwellings. 188.8.131.52 Separate chapters shall specify requirements for storage of oxidizers by class where the quantities stored are greater than the
Current low-cost oxidizer ingredients such as Ammonium Perchlorate (AP) are incapable of imparting the desired performance and insensitivity. Focused efforts are needed to identify, synthesize, and characterize new ingredient oxidizers that can be produced commercially at low-cost while meeting required attributes such as hazard classification
Acid-Base Reactions. An acid-base reaction is one in which a hydrogen ion, H +, is transferred from one stone species to another.Such reactions are of central importance to numerous natural and technological processes, ranging from the stone transformations that take place within cells and the lakes and oceans, to the industrial-scale production of fertilizers, pharmaceuticals, and other